The stages of heifers, from breeding to calves, feeding and facilities

Heifer feeding:

 

When a calf is taken out, most of the health problems begin, so a decision is made on the optimal growth rate that the most important sources of energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins are euthanized.

Nutritional needs and feed intake are changing over time. Heifers with less than one year of age have the highest nutritional requirements but lack complete rumen capacity. As a result, the growth rate will be below the optimal level if these livestock feeds only on feed.

Cereals or concentrates should be considered in the diet of young heifers but do not require older heifers. "Table One".

Table 1: Concentrates and fats used for large heifers:

In some farms, heifers feed on rations that remain the "leftovers" of female cows. Probably rich in fiber and poor in protein, usually residues are fed to heifers over 6 months, so that these diets have a remarkable, well-balanced balance.

Nutrition from lactation to inoculation

Typically, heifers should be between 40% and 80% in size from 3 to 6 months; for rabbits for 7-12 months, rations can vary between 50% and 90%.

With the growth of heifers and older ones, the protein intake of the diet can be reduced and the concentration of NDF fiber is increased. Low quality fodder should not be used in rations of hens for 3 to 6 months. Low-quality feeds fed to older heifers should be mixed with concentrates and minerals. "Table 2. The percentage of crude protein needed in the concentrate first depends on the amount of crude protein in the forage. Usually a concentrate mixture containing 16% of protein, "sometimes formulated for dairy cattle", can be suitable and satisfactory for years to come.

 

Table 2: Examples of heifers used

 

Oats grain, Joya High energy feed can be replaced by whole grains of corn. All components of the feed can be put in a mixture of grains.

Nutrition from inoculation to birth:

Heifers older than 13 months of age have adequate rumen capacity to grow, provided they only feed on high quality forage rations. In fact, high-energy fodder such as corn silage should be used finely because older heifers may be over-consuming and obese. The combination of corn silage and leguminous fodder or fodder grown in fertile soils provides energy and protein efficiently. Concentrates should be used when low-quality ration crops are used. Diets based on quality foods are given in Table 2.

One to two months before the birth, a nutritional plan should be set up to meet the needs of the calves in the uterus and the first milking. These heifers should be fed with fodder and more concentrates to ensure a uniform transitional period and encourage livestock to consume more dry matter at birth.

Preventing inappropriate rating, "high and low" is very important in childbirth. Humiliation and obesity are the main cause of dystocia and postpartum problems. However, late pregnancy as a course for heifers to be prepared for stress is to put heifers in early lactation and can not be considered as a course for BCS regulation.

Breeding heifers:

At the same time as the heifers grow, significant changes in the requirements of the resting position and nutritional space occur. In addition, many managerial actions are required for the "vaccination, parasitic treatments, artificial insemination, calf heighings, weight control, and more."

Tools and equipment for older heifers should be designed in such a way as to eliminate the livelihood and comfort of the worker. Features of the facility for older heifers should be considered for convenience:

1- Nutrition

2. The bed and clean it

3. Moving and trampling the livestock

After being bred, heifers may be grouped. Heifers should first be grouped into smaller groups to estimate their nutritional needs. The size and number of groups also depends on the size of the flock and the available facilities. The size of the body of the same age and the same age when the livestock is grouped is very important.

Calves taken from milk: 2 to 5 months

The milk of calves of the same size should be placed in small groups; "4 to 6 calves" should be provided to similar characteristics, such as individually cleaned bedding, good ventilation, easy access to water and food, etc. Be Therefore, there should be enough management space for all calves so that all calves can eat at a time. "Table 4". Particularly when a concentrate is fed to a limited amount, competition opportunities for calves should not exist.


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